The Lion, The Witch and The Comparisons

C.S. Lewis is one of the best known writers of children literature in history. His vibrant story lines and plot twists have the power to intrigue not only children, but their parents as well. The first published book in The Chronicles of Narnia series, The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe, is undoubtably the most famous book in C.S. Lewis’ collection of literary successes. This beloved children’s book has been reproduced into several different medias including a handful of television adaptations, a few theatrical radio broadcasts and in 2005, a feature film. Though the book (1950) and the film (2005) have many similarities, they both have distinctive qualities that place them in their own time periods and cultures, such as the differences of survival instincts, heroes, their views of woman and the impression of Christian theology. 

 

In 1945, one of the most significant events in history came to an end, World War II. The book was written shortly after the war ended. The book uses World War II air-raids as the catalyst for getting the four main characters (Peter, Suzan, Edmund and Lucy) to the professor’s house to start the book’s adventure. The war is important to mention and keep in mind because at that time, the war consumed the world. Soldiers were required to use their basic instincts of survival and the book highlights those instincts with its characters.

For example, the oldest sibling, Peter, is given a sword by Father Christmas, and from that moment on he is carrying the sword with him. In the last half of the book, Aslan (The Lion) gives Peter advice and tips on how to effectively wield his sword in battle. In a moment of enemy attack, Peter is forced to use the sword to kill his enemy, to protect his own life and the lives of others. This is a parallel of the responsibility that soldiers had in the recent World War, they were required to use their weapons to protect themselves and others. The survival instincts that were present in the book’s time period have been diminished in our current society.
In the film, the first few images the audience is shown are airplanes dropping bombs during an air-raid. The audience is then introduced to four children who are the main characters. The audience watches them hide from the chaos of the war and then observes a scuffle between the two brothers, Peter and Edmund. In the film, the story starts with an action/drama movie-style score and dark, shaky camera shots which play into the intensity of the action. In the current culture of consumers, everything is about instant gratification and large amounts of stimulants to remain interested. The excitement of this moment fuels the audience to believe that the characters are survivors, thus creating the expectation of a film with lots of close calls, in which it delivers. Throughout the beginning of the film Peter is constantly shying away from any action and trying to stay safe. He is also influenced by his sister Suzanne who constantly wants to go back home. It seems that the film is continually promoting the safety of home and that translates into the current cultures desire of being at home, comfortable and safe.
The book was written in the late 1940s and was published in 1950.

The influence of culture at that time can be seen through the author’s writing. It was a time that viewed women as household appliances, something a man could own or control. The author, C.S. Lewis was raised in an environment which believed that women are second to men. In the novel, There are several instances where Edmund (a ten-year-old boy and one of the four main characters) degrades women verbally by calling his youngest sister, Lucy, “just a girl.” This simple line illustrates the overall theme of the male chauvinistic personalities throughout the story. Another example of this is when the reader is introduced to the characters Mr. and Mrs. Beaver.

The gender roles played in their household reflect the time period in which C.S. Lewis was writing. Mrs. Beaver is responsible for the cooking, the cleaning and being supportive of Mr. Beaver. She is also portrayed as a very kind character whose main concerns are having enough food for their long journey and the proper necessities a woman should have, such as a sewing machine. In a dramatic moment when the beavers and the children are escaping the dam, Mrs. Beaver says “Well, I’m nearly ready now. I suppose the sewing machine’s too heavy to bring?” Not only does this create some comedic relief in the midst of a tense moment, it also demonstrates the authors expectations of a woman’s role in the household. Her character is a reflection of being the perfect wife because she fulfills her responsibilities and blindly trusts her male counterpart.

Over 50 years divide the book and the film, women are depicted very differently in the current time period. In the film, once the characters are in Narnia we are introduced to Mr. and Mrs. Beaver. Unlike the book, Mrs. Beaver holds more control over Mr. Beaver, she talks to him firmly and lightly humiliates him in front of their guests. In the midst of the characters leaving, Mrs. Beaver says “…Beaver gets pretty cranky when he’s hungry.” Mr. Beaver responds with an agitated response of “I’m cranky now!” In other instances, Mr. Beaver shrugs off any off-putting comments Mrs. Beaver sends his way and the audiences falls in love with their relationship. The film made Mrs. Beaver less of a housewife figure and more of a strong, confident woman. Culture’s view of women has changed due to women becoming more independent, confident and successful. There are a lot of concerns with showing women in films, books or television as vulnerable, dimwitted characters and Mrs. Beavers revamped character development in the film as opposed to the book is the proof of a cultural shift about women and their roles.

The concept of a hero in any medium is very important. The hero is used to lift spirits, inspire the audience and ultimately, save the day. There are several different archetypes of heroes in the book, but most notably Aslan. Aslan is a warrior, he is noble, relentless and fights for the underdog. There is a moment near the climax of the book where Aslan has a meeting with the White Witch, Aslan agrees that he will sacrifice his own life for the well-being of Edmund. Later that evening, Aslan is killed upon a stone table by the White Witch while a crowd watches and celebrates his death. At the first sunlight, the stone table is broken and he is resurrected. C.S. Lewis is famously known for his Christian beliefs and its influence in his writings. The book continually refers to the children as the two sons of Adam and the two daughters of Eve, which a direct correlation of the worlds first two human beings according to biblical text. This is a substantial Christian influence from Lewis and also isn’t reflected so heavily in the film. In the novel, when the death and resurrection of Aslan happens, it symbolizes the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Aslan in this respect is viewed as the hero of the tale, he has sacrificed himself for Edmund, who in this case represents humanity. C.S. Lewis was able to influence millions of people with his beliefs by using his characters symbolic gestures.


In the film, the main symbolism and hero still lies in the character of Aslan, however Peter, Suzanne, Lucy and even Edmund are painted as hero types to create a more appealing and adventurous story for the film.

The battle scene at the end of the film has Peter in several heroic stances and movements.

Suzanne is seen from low angles with her bow and arrow, which are considered hero shots.

Lucy is elevated heavily at the end with her healing potion as she rides around on Aslan healing the wounded.

Finally, Edmund is given a glorious moment of redemption when he bravely strikes the White Witch’s staff to symbolically end her reign as ruler of Narnia as the prophecy hath foretold. At the end of the film.

The four main characters are seen receiving crowns and becoming kings and queens of Narnia. This is relevant because it can be viewed as the same progression of the four writers of the gospels. After the death and resurrection of Jesus, they were responsible for conveying the story of his life and miracles in a way people could relate to and understand.

The four newly crowned royalty would now represent the view that Narnians would have of their King, Aslan. The symbolism of Jesus in the character of Aslan still remains in the film, however it’s interesting to look at how the current culture responds to this aspect of the film. The film was co-produced by Walden Media and Disney. Walden Media is owned by Philip Anschutz who is a conservative Christian and has been quoted saying “We expects our movies to be entertaining, but also to be life affirming and to carry a moral message.” This is further evidence that the movie’s Christian themes are intentional and the marketing of the film was deliberately towards a faith-based audience. However, because of the quality of the books and the genre of fantasy, many people from around the world enjoyed the film (regardless of their faith) and it was a box office hit earning over $700,000,000 in world wide box office sales.

The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe has impacted millions of people over the last 55 years. The story is full of great characters who have heart, courage and faith and it provides easy access to the imagination. The story will continue to live on as future filmmakers attempt to bring the words of C.S. Lewis to life for a brand new audience to enjoy, but for now, each of these medias can serve as a reflection to it’s corresponding time period.

 

Works Cited
The Chronicles of Narnia The Lion the Witch and The Wardrobe. Dir. Andrew Adamson. Perf. Georgie Henley, Skandar Keynes, William Moseley, Anna Poppewell, Tilda Swinton, Dawn French, Ray Winstone, Liam Neeson. Walden Media, Walt Disney, 2005. Bluray.

Lewis, C. S. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. London: Geoffrey Bless, 1950. Print.

“Walden Media.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 May 2013. Web. 07 Dec. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walden_Media&gt;.

Norman Lear

Norman Lear is widely known for creating some of the most iconic television sitcoms in American television history. His accomplishments and contributions in the television industry are too many to count. He has created several movements and organizations that have been a part of establishing his legacy. Norman Lear as a creator, activist and producer has had significant impact on America, and it shows through his life’s work.

Lear’s legacy started in media, specifically television. However, he has also made contributions to the film industry as a producer and writer. He is most well known for being the Executive Producer on films such as Fried Green Tomatoes

and The Princess Bride.

He also wrote the screenplay for the film Divorce American Style for which he was nominated for an Academy Award. Lear’s strongest contribution to media is the overwhelming influence he had on American television. He pushed boundaries that had never been broken and created humor where there had always been hate.

He created shows such as Sanford and Son, Good Times, Maud, The Jeffersons and most significantly All in the Family.

 

All in the Family was a sitcom that lasted for nine seasons and won four Emmy awards. The show focused on Archie Bunker, a working class man who continuously shared his point of view. The show dealt with issues that were previously blacklisted and deemed unsuitable for network television. Some Issues that were used to fuel the show were race, religion, homosexuality, abortion and the Vietnam War. Not only did the show push the boundaries of what was acceptable on network television, it created situations where the material was humorous and relatable to the audience. The show ended up feeling more like a play because most of the scenes were in one central location. This made the flow of the show feel authentic and have a substantial amount of impact on its viewers. The cultural impact of the show is still recognized today in current television.

One of the most obvious references can be seen in the television show Family Guy.

It opens the same way as All in the Family, with two people sitting at a piano singing about traditional values.

All in the Family also perfected something brand new in television: the spin off. The show created so many interesting characters and story lines that Norman Lear saw the opportunity to create and produce several successful shows in the same universe of Archie Bunker’s family. The most significant spin off was the show The Jeffersons, which is the story of Archie’s next door neighbors. The Jeffersons lasted eleven seasons, and the character George Jefferson became known as the “black Archie Bunker”, who was just as racist as Archie. Without the impact of this show, it would be hard to imagine how television could have progressed in the same way as it has.

Lear was not only a successful television writer and producer, he had a passion for his home country of America. In 2001, Lear purchased an original copy of the Declaration of Independence for $8.1 million.

He continued to demonstrate his passion through a campaign he started in early July of 2001 called the “Declaration of Independence Road Trip,” which focused on bringing one of the surviving twenty-five copies of the Declaration of Independence to the American people. The road trip lasted three and a half years and included stops at the thirty-seventh Super Bowl and the 2002 Winter Olympics. Lear is also an advocate for the Democratic party and created a campaign named “Declare Yourself.” The goal of this campaign was to encourage young people to vote and be responsible Americans.


Lear has also contributed to the American public by creating several impactful organizations. In 1981 Lear founded “People For the American Way,” which is a modern liberal progressive advocacy group. This organization’s goal is to see that Americans continuously enjoy their freedoms of equality, speech and the right to follow their own American dream. Lear also founded “The Norman Lear Center at the USC Annenberg School for Communication”.

The goal of the organization is dedicated to exploring the convergence of entertainment, commerce and society. Finally, Lear is credited with founding the “Business Enterprise Trust,” which only lasted from 1989 to 2000. All of these organizations are significant additions to the legacy of Norman Lear.

Norman Lear is a man of brilliance, guts and pure passion. He has influenced Americans in ways that few people ever could. His contributions to American television will leave a lasting impression on the world. His love of America does not go unnoticed with his willingness to express his right of free speech and courageous story telling. It is because of this that Norman Lear will be forever remembered as an influential American figure.

Works Cited
“All in the Family.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All_in_the_Family>.

“Awards.” IMDb. IMDb.com, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0005131/ awards?ref_=nm_awd>.

“The Norman Lear Center: About.” The Norman Lear Center: About. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://www.learcenter.org/html/about/?cm=lear&gt;.

“The Norman Lear Center: Projects Array( [path] = /html/projects/ [query] = Cm=doi).” The Norman Lear Center: Projects Array( [path] = /html/projects/ [query] = Cm=doi). N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://www.learcenter.org/html/projects/?cm=doi&gt;.

“Norman Lear.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Nov. 2013. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Lear>.

“People For the American Way.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People_For_the_American_Way&gt;.

Thomas Edison

Thomas Edison was born in the mid 1800’s and is most widely known for creating the lightbulb. However, Edison is credited for some of the most innovative and influential inventions in history. His inventions are the basis for many of the technologies we use on a daily basis. Without the influence of Edison, mass media would not look the same way as it does today.

Edison invented one of the most significant devices in our history, the Phonograph.

The Phonograph is capable of recording one’s voice and playing it back immediately. The device had two diaphragm-and-needle units, one to record and the other used for playback. There was a mouthpiece attached to the machine and when a person spoke into it, the vibrations were indented onto the cylinder by the recording needle. Sadly, the recordings were only able to be played back a few times before the quality of the sound became unrecognizable. After it was built, Edison recorded himself reciting the poem “Mary had a little lamb” and he was able to listen back to the recording of his own voice.

In 1891 Edison filed for a patent that included the Kinetograph and the Kinetoscope.

This patent included the concept of using cylinder-based film, sized at 35mm. The Kinetograph was one of the first motion picture cameras invented. The camera was a big stationary piece of equipment and because of that, Edison needed a location to specifically have his movies filmed. The location became known as the Black Maria and was Edison’s primary studio where he shot his films.

The Black Maria was a small, uncomfortable and dark studio. In the early days of cinema, cameras required an enormous amount of light, which is why Edison implemented a retractable roof to let in the natural sunlight. It was built on a rotation wheel so that when they were filming they were able to rotate towards the sun throughout the day. The films that were created in Edison’s first production house were films that included dance acts, magic shows, plays and vaudeville performances.

 

The Kinetoscope was the second half of his motion picture system. The device was designed for an individual to look through a viewer window on top of the device to see the film that had been created. This device established the early technology that was required in order to create larger projections of a film for audience viewing. In the late 1890’s The Edison Manufacturing Company bought the rights to a device called the Phantoscope which was a device that used film and electric light to project onto a wall screen. The company decided to manufacture the machine and create films with it under the condition that it be advertised as Thomas Edison’s newest invention. The device was renamed to Vitascope. However, a short time later the Edison Company abandon the marketing of the Vitascope and created the Projectoscope.

Thomas Edison was a man of great influence and brilliance. He is credited with some of the greatest inventions of all time. Edison also holds over 2,000 patents globally and is listed as a contributor on several other inventions.
Bibliography

“Vitascope.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.

“Edison Motion Pictures.” Edison Motion Pictures. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.

.”Edison’s Black Maria.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.

Chavis, Jason. “When Was the Kinetograph Invented? | EHow.” EHow. Demand Media, 01 July 2009. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.

“Kinetoscope.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Oct. 2013. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.

“Edison Film and Sound: The History of the Edison Cylinder Phonograph.” Edison Film and Sound: The History of the Edison Cylinder Phonograph. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.

“List of Edison Patents.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Oct. 2013. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.